Here are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA). To learn more about the APA format, see http.org this is certainly://www.apastyle.
Your variety of works cited has to start at the end of the paper on a new page with the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author’s last name, making use of the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Only the initials associated with the first and names that are middle given. An, or The if the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A.
For dates, spell out the names of months into the text of one’s paper, but abbreviate them into the variety of works cited, with the exception of May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and start to become consistent. Because of the month-day-year style, make sure to add a comma following the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined since most typewriters had not a way to print italics. You should still underline the names of publications if you write a bibliography by hand. But, then publication names should be in italics as they are below if you use a computer. Check always with your instructor regarding their preference of employing italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the initial type of an entry must be left that is flush and also the second and subsequent lines should always be indented 1/2″.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using capitalization that is sentence-style the titles of books or articles, therefore you should capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions for this rule would be titles that are periodical proper names in a title which will still be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed closely by the amount number which, because of the title, can also be italicized.
When there is more than one author, use an ampersand (&) prior to the name associated with author that is last. If there are many more than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the remainder.
Put the date of publication in parentheses soon after the true name associated with author. Place a period following the closing parenthesis. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works within longer works.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of The United States. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a reputation for the heroes regarding the imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: A practical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In This new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: help with college essay writing Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: Do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put an interval after the title. Then give the page range (in regular type) without “pp. if a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and” If the periodical will not use volume numbers, as in newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in the current schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, 21) july. California town counts town to big quake. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, July 21). Heard any good books lately? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL
Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the precise website document. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) soon after the document title. Break a URL that is lengthy would go to another line after a slash or before a period of time. Continually look at your references to online documents. There is no period following a URL. Note: if you fail to find several of this given information, cite what is available.
Devitt, T. (2001, 2) august. Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved January 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom in our midst. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html june
Note: If a document is contained within a sizable and complex website (such as that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization and the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.